Splitting up trust

When we think about browsing the web, we usually think about a web browser and a web server communicating. But today’s (and yesterday’s) web browsers are often far more complex than a single piece of client software. That single piece of client software is supported by many services run by different entities. An example of such a supporting service is a DNS resolver, or a telemetry service operated by the browser vendor.

These browser-supporting services can introduce privacy challenges, which often take a similar shape: the browser needs to talk to a service to look up or report some information, but the end user doesn’t want the service to learn too much from the information it receives. Sometimes each piece of reported information is itself sensitive (e.g., a capability URL that a person visited). Sometimes each individual piece of reported information is innocuous on its own, but we don’t want a service to be able to link requests coming from the same person and build up a profile of that person over time.

Recently the browser world has seen a trend of systems that solve these privacy challenges by splitting up trust among two or more servers, with each ideally run by a separate organization. Instead of the browser trusting a single service with sensitive data, the browser splits up the request among multiple servers, and as long as one of the servers is behaving honestly, the user’s privacy is preserved.


Here are some examples of systems that split up trust among two or more servers, where at least one is assumed to be honest, and how they apply to web browsers:

Oblivious DNS

As web browsers have adopted DNS over HTTPS (DoH), which hides DNS queries from the network, there has been increased interest in protecting user privacy against recursive resolvers as well as the network. Within the realm of practicality, the recursive resolver has to be able to see the query to service it, but the resolver doesn’t need to know which query comes from a particular user, nor that multiple queries come from the same user.

An initial proposal for so-called Oblivious DNS came from academia. These researchers cleverly designed a system that didn’t require any changes to existing DNS infrastructure. In this proposal, clients encrypt queries as domains under a new TLD (<encrypted query>.odns, for example). The recursive resolver treats this as a normal query, forwarding it to the authoritative .odns nameserver, which decrypts it and forwards it on to the resolver for the real query. Thus the recursive resolver is transformed into a proxy for DNS resolution without even knowing. The recursive resolver sees only encrypted queries, which isn’t very interesting information. The .odns resolver sees plaintext queries but can’t link them to a particular user because they all come from recursive resolvers.

Why not just stick a SOCKS or CONNECT proxy in front of the recursive resolver, you ask? At first glance this would seem to be a much simpler way to achieve similar privacy properties: the proxy would see only encrypted data, and the recursive resolver wouldn’t be able to distinguish which query is coming from which user (within the anonymity set of the users using the same proxy). The paper doesn’t address this explicitly, as far as I can tell, but first of all, I suspect it was written before widespread DoH deployment, so setting up an encrypted tunnel to the recursive resolver would have required changes to the resolver. Secondly, even if DoH were in the picture, the client would need to open a fresh connection for each query through the proxy to prevent the recursive resolver from linking queries together, which would be a significant performance hit.

A little bit later, Cloudflare, Apple, and Fastly designed and deployed a variant of Oblivious DNS, specifically designed to work with DoH, and thus named Oblivious DoH (ODoH). This ODoH variant looks a bit similar to the SOCKS/CONNECT proxy strawperson I just mentioned. That is, ODoH puts a proxy in front of the recursive resolver, instead of transforming the recursive resolver into a proxy. However, if it were actually a SOCKS or CONNECT proxy, then, as previously mentioned, the client would need to open a fresh connection per query, or else the recursive resolver would be able to link multiple queries coming in over the same connection. ODoH instead encrypts queries at the application layer, allowing the proxy to pool multiple requests from different users onto the same connection to the recursive resolver. The proxy is therefore essentially an HTTP proxy where the requests and responses just happen to contain encrypted data. Since the request/response bodies are encrypted as they pass through the proxy, the proxy doesn’t see any interesting user data, and the recursive resolver doesn’t see which user the queries are coming from. Encrypting at the application layer means that the recursive resolver must know how to decrypt queries and encrypt the responses, but fortunately Cloudflare, one of the main drivers of ODoH, operates a popular DNS resolver and can modify it however they see fit.

(I’ll resist going on a tangent about academic researchers often making interesting mispredictions about deployment feasibility: the original ODNS researchers went to great lengths to avoid modifying existing DNS infrastructure in the name of deployability, whereas it turned out that modifying a popular DNS resolver was no hurdle at all. A topic for another post…)

Oblivious HTTP

Oblivious HTTP (OHTTP) is a more recent proposal that is basically a generalization of ODoH. It separates the protocol (encrypting HTTP requests and responses and passing them through a proxy) from the particular application (DNS queries) so that it can be used for other applications. The example given in the proposal is browser telemetry queries. Browser telemetry is how vendors measure how their product is performing: for example, the browser might report how often a user clicks on a particular button or how long it takes each webpage to load. While these datapoints are not particularly sensitive in isolation, one could imagine building up some interesting information about a user if one could see their telemetry reports over time. Oblivious HTTP protects this information: as with ODoH, the proxy sees only encrypted requests, and the origin server (the browser telemetry server, in this example) doesn’t know which data came from which user. As with ODoH, the advantage of encrypting HTTP requests and responses instead of using connection-layer encryption is to allow multiple requests to be pooled over the same connection.


ODoH and OHTTP are, in some sense, cheap hacks (though I don’t mean that in a derogatory sense). They are fairly easy to deploy, at least for the players driving them, but they don’t give strong privacy guarantees. For example, in ODoH, the recursive resolver still sees how often particular domain names are resolved, even if it can’t tell who is resolving them. And for users, the privacy is only as strong as the number of users who are sharing the same proxy.

Another approach is to use cryptographic protocols to achieve much stronger privacy. One example of this is Prio, a two-server system for the browser telemetry use case. Prio allows browser vendors to compute aggregate statistics over user telemetry reports without seeing the actual reports – as long as the two servers involved aren’t colluding.

There is probably a whole other long blog post involved in explaining how Prio works, so here is an attempt at a very succinct and highly simplified explanation. First imagine that there are a bunch of browsers who each hold some secret value, and the browser vendor wants to know the sum of those values – with the help of two non-colluding servers. Each client splits up its secret value into two halves where neither half on its own contains any information about the secret value (this is called a secret-sharing scheme). Conveniently, there exists ways to do this splitting such that if each server receives a half from each client and sums those shares up, and then we sum the the two sums from the servers, the result is the sum of all the client values – exactly what the browser vendor wants to know, without the browser learning anything about the individual client values.

This is the seed of how Prio works, but Prio adds quite a bit of additional complexity to achieve two additional properties efficiently:

  • Robustness against malicious clients sending invalid inputs that throw off the protocol. In Prio, clients send a type of zero-knowledge proof showing that their inputs are valid without revealing any information about the input itself.

  • The ability to compute complex functions, not just the linear combinations of values that are permitted directly by the secret-sharing scheme. To accomplish this, the Prio clients pre-encode their input values using some math tricks such that the final value of interest can be constructed as a linear combination of the encoded values. These encoded values are used as the inputs to the secret-sharing scheme instead of the raw values, and the aforementioned proof technique can be used to show that the values are properly encoded.

Interestingly, Prio is, I think, the most complex of the systems I’m describing in the post and yet also the most widely deployed. Firefox has used it for browser telemetry, and various companies have used it for COVID exposure notifications.


Phishing blocklists are the final example I’ll mention, and this is an interesting case study because they’ve been deployed for a relatively long time, and because there are a variety of deployment models currently in use by different browsers. Phishing blocklists are lists of malicious webpages, often compiled by browser vendors, and served to browsers to block when users try to access them. Some browsers query plaintext URLs to the browser vendor to check against the blocklists in real-time when loading a webpage, and some use a hashing protocol to obtain some measure of privacy. Some browsers use blocklists from third-party vendors, and the browser vendor operates a proxy between the browser client and the third-party vendor.

None of these deployed approaches provide strong cryptographic privacy: in all of them, a malicious server learns something from observing the blocklist queries. A recent academic paper called Checklist proposes a new two-server private information retrieval (PIR) protocol and tailors it specifically for phishing blocklists. I wrote a lot of about PIR in a previous post, so I won’t go into much detail here. In short, the browser sends queries to two servers and learns whether a particular URL is on the phishing blocklist. As long as the servers aren’t colluding, neither learns any information at all about what URL the browser is querying.

What’s the threat model, anyway?

A common thread among these case studies is that most of these proposed systems aren’t widely deployed in web browsers yet. There are many possible reasons that they haven’t been deployed yet, but one to ponder is whether the costs are worth the benefits – even for the relatively cheap proposals like ODoH and OHTTP. And this invites the question: What is the threat model for these systems? What exactly are we protecting against?

One reason that the cost/benefit calculation is not straightforward is that, in many (but not all) applications, the browser vendor is running the service that receives the sensitive information. Generally, web browsers have a fairly complex threat model with respect to their vendors. While many people would say, for example, that they don’t want their browser vendor snooping on their browsing history, those same people do inherently trust their browser vendor to not be overtly malicious. In a world of autoupdating (that is, the world of most modern browser users today), an overtly malicious browser vendor could push malicious code, potentially even stealthily to a subset of targeted users. We can dream about a world in which such a malicious update might be detectable, but that’s not the world we live in today, by a long shot.

This state of affairs doesn’t mean that users must trust their browser vendors fully, but they certainly must trust them to some extent, and that “to some extent” is hard to pin down. Is it reasonable to assume, for example, that a rogue insider (or attacker exploiting a bug in the vendor’s server-side infrastructure) can access sensitive data but can’t push malicious code? If the vendor/attacker can’t push malicious code, could they instead serve data from an endpoint that gets parsed vulnerably in a memory-unsafe language, or could they serve an experiment or telemetry configuration that changes the browser’s behavior in an exploitable way? Could an attacker withhold an autoupdate that fixes an exploitable security bug, leaving users in a vulnerable state?

This is a complex threat model to reason about. The attacker is somewhere short of fully malicious, but potentially more powerful than an honest-but-curious attacker who follows protocols honestly but seeks to passively learn information from the messages it receives during the protocol.

The threat model gets even more nuanced when you introduce multiple servers with a non-collusion assumption. Usually, but not always, the idea is that the multiple servers would be run by separate organizations. Both organizations must be malicious or compromised for the privacy guarantees to be broken. Is this a meaningful improvement, given the not-complete-but-probably-significant trust that users must already place in their browser vendor? That depends on the specific application (how malicious must each server be to compromise the systems’ privacy guarantees? how could a somewhat-malicious browser vendor access the same information on its own?). And of course it also depends on factors such as the technical and social reputability of the organizations, their legal jurisdictions, and what threats you are concerned about (rogue insiders versus law enforcement, for example).

In some cases, the servers could actually be run by the same organization with non-collusion assured via attestation, audits, or some other means – each of which has their own complex assumptions.

In short, threat modelling for a web browser against its vendor is really hard, and it gets even harder when you introduce a non-collusion assumption among multiple servers. Threat modelling is a lot simpler when the browser vendor is not the attacker we’re concerned about (for example, querying a phishing blocklist provided by someone other than the browser vendor, or ODoH). But even when the browser vendor isn’t in the picture, whether you trust two organizations to not collude is still a complicated social, legal, and technical question.


Related to this nuanced threat model, there are a few pitfalls I’ve noticed people tend to fall into when proposing two-non-colluding-server approaches for browser features:

Sharing implementations and/or infrastructure

It may be less realistic to assume non-collusion if the two servers share the same implementation or infrastructure. Breaking the system entirely may only be a matter of finding and exploiting one bug, or compromising one organization (such as a common cloud provider). This is a commonly cited problem in the Certificate Transparency ecosystem, where many otherwise independent log servers use the same implementation. Certificate Transparency is not exactly comparable to the systems I’ve been discussing in this post – in particular, log servers are not exactly assumed to be non-colluding, at least theoretically – but in practice, exploiting multiple log servers with the same bug would be quite damaging for Certificate Transparency clients.

But on the other hand, multiple independent server implementations is not obviously better. It may cost more to find one exploitable bug in a hardened, mature, well-resourced implementation than one bug in each of two subpar implementations.

Unlinkability is weak

Unlinkability is a fairly weak privacy guarantee, and I think it is probably set as the goal more often because it is relatively cheap and feasible than because it is the ideal goal (in fact the OHTTP spec is pretty explicit about this). In most applications that I can think of, individual queries can be sensitive in particular circumstances, even if they aren’t linked to particular users. For example, anonymous DNS queries usually aren’t sensitive, but occasionally they are – an uptick of traffic to a particular hostname, even if not linked to specific users, might indicate an impending product launch. I’ve also often seen developers assume that URLs are not sensitive if they are not linked to a particular user, but as noted above, capability URLs are a counter-example to this belief.

In addition, in many browsing applications, side channels may be a threat to unlinkability. For example, the attacker may be able to distinguish which queries are coming from the same user via timing information or request size.

Truly private systems like Prio and Checklist guarantee that the servers learn zero information from each query, which is a much stronger guarantee at the cost of more complexity.

Failing to consider availability

In some applications, distributing trust among multiple servers trades off exploitability for availability requirements. These applications are a nice example of why availability is often cited as a security property. For example, in ODoH, if the oblivious proxy server goes down or becomes unavailable, the client may have to fall back to regular DoH, losing its privacy guarantees. Or in Checkpoint, an unavailable helper server leaves the client vulnerable to phishing. The servers must be highly available in order for clients to rely on them and be able to fail closed in the event that they are unavailable. In practice, I suspect that clients will fail open in many applications, meaning that an attack on the servers’ availability is an attack on users’ privacy.

Splitting up trust among multiple servers is an appealing concept for browser features, but it’s a lot more nuanced than it looks at first glance. Because the trust relationship between browser users and browser vendors is already so hard to nail down, I think multi-server approaches are most likely to be fruitful and coherent in applications where the browser vendor isn’t the party from which we are trying to protect users’ privacy.

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